abigail: a lady's maid
Almack's: Assembly rooms on King Street in London. Private, very exclusive subscription balls were held there each Wednesday night of the Season. Its important patronesses (in 1814, according to Gronow, they were Lady Castlereigh, Lady Jersey, Lady Cowper, Lady Sefton, Mrs. Drummond-Burrell, Princess Esterhazy, and Countess Lieven) determined who was allowed to purchase subscription vouchers. Captain Gronow called Almack's "the seventh heaven of the fashionable world," and said, "The gates were guarded by the lady patronesses whose smiles or frowns consigned men and women to happiness or despair.
apoplexy: A stroke.
banns: Public announcement in church of a proposed marriage. Before the banns could be read, there had to be a declaration of residency of four weeks by at least one of the parties, presented to the cleric at least 7 days prior to a public reading of the banns. The banns were read aloud during church service, following the reading of the second lesson, for three consecutive Sundays, with a query as to whether anyone knew of any reason why the couple should not wed. If one of the parties was from a different parish, the banns had to be read there as well. Once the banns had been read three times, without objection, the cleric issued a certificate and the couple was free to wed at a morning of their choosing in one of the churches where the banns had been read.
barouche: A four-wheeled carriage with two facing seats, the forward facing seat having a collapsible hood. It had a driver's box seat in front and could be pulled by two or four horses. The barouche was the preferred carriage for aristocratic ladies (it was an expensive vehicle) during good weather when the hood could be pushed down.
batman: An orderly assigned to a military officer.
bluestocking: A woman with unfashionably intellectual and literary interests. The term is explained in Boswell's "Life of Dr. Johnson", as deriving from the name given to meetings held by certain ladies in the 18th century, for conversation with distinguished literary men. A frequent attendee was a Mr. Stillingfleet, who always wore his everyday blue worsted stockings because he could not afford silk stockings. He was so much distinguished for his conversational powers that his absence at any time was felt to be a great loss, and so it was often remarked, "We can do nothing without the blue stockings." Admiral Boscawan, husband of one of the most successful hostesses of such gatherings, derisively dubbed them 'The Blue Stocking Society'. Although both men and women, some of them eminent literary and learned figures of the day, attended these meetings, the term 'bluestocking' became attached exclusively, and often contemptuously, to women. This was partly because women were instrumental in organizing the evenings, but also because they were seen as encroaching on matters thought not to be their concern.
Bow Street Runner: The precursor of the metropilitan police, the Bow Street Runners were established in the mid-18th century by the magistrate of the Bow Street court, who happened to be the novelist Henry Fielding at that time. The runners were professional detectives who pursued felons across the country. They could also be hired by private individuals if the magistrate approved and could spare them.
cabriolet: A open-air owner-driven two-wheeled vehicle similar in appearance to a curricle (see below) except that is was designed for a single horse only, and instead of a seat in the back for the "tiger" there was only a small platform on which he would stand. It came into use about 1810, but reached its peak of popularity during the early Victorian years.
chariot: A traveling chariot was a small privately owned vehicle, the equivalent of the rented post chaise. [See definition of Post Chaise, below, for details.]
curricle: A fashionable open-air owner-driven two-wheeled sporting vehicle designed for a pair of horses and seating for no more than two (ie the Regency equivalent of a two-seater convertible sports car). There was a small seat in the rear for a groom or "tiger". [See definition of "tiger" below.]
cut direct: A deliberate and public snub.
demi-monde: Literally "half world"; a class on the fringes of respectable Society. Often used in reference to courtesans, prostitutes, etc, though this is not strictly correct.
dowager: The widow of a peer, eg the Dowager Countess of Somewhere. The term was not added to a woman's title unless and until the new holder of the title married. For example, if the new Earl of Somewhere, the son of the late earl, is a young man when he inherits the title and has no wife, his mother continues to be styled Countess of Somewhere. When he married, his wife takes that title and his mother become the Dowager Countess. The term is also sometimes used informally, and disparagingly, to refer to an older woman of the upper classes.
drum: A party.
entail: An inheritance of real property which cannot be sold by the owner but which passes by law to the owner's heir upon his death. The purpose of an entail was to keep the land of a family intact in the main line of succession. The heir to an entailed estate could not sell the land, or bequeath it to anyone but his direct heir. Some entails were tied to a title and were defined in the original letters patent granting the title. The complications arising from entails were an important factor in the life of many of the upper classes, leaving many individuals wealthy in land but still heavily in debt.
foolscap: Writing paper. The term refers to the size of the paper (17 by 13½ inches, which was typically folded, and sometimes cut, in half ) and not the quality or weight. The standard foolscap size was in use since the 15th century, and the name derives from the watermark in the shape of a jester's hat that was once used to identify it.
guinea: A gold coin worth 21 shillings. Last coinage in 1813.
hackney: A coach for hire. The Regency equivalent of a taxi-cab.
hell (ie gaming hell): A gambling establishment. Sort of a casino without all the neon lights and loud music. A young "pigeon" was more likely to fall victim to a dishonorable "shark" at a hell than at an elite gentleman's club.
jarvey: The driver of a hackney coach.
jointure: A financial provision for a widow. Typically the amount is negotiated based on the portion she brought to the marriage, and is generally established as part of the marriage settlement.
laudanum: A tincture of opium used as a painkiller and sedative. A few dropswere taken in a glass of wine or other beverage. It was widely used for a variety of ailments, by both adults and children.
landau: A four-wheeled carriage with two facing seats, a driver's seat in front, and two collapsible hoods that, when closed, joined in the middle to cover all occupants (except the driver). More often the hoods were folded back, and the vehicle was used as a barouche, ie for fashionable people to ride in and be seen. The landau was invented in Germany in the late 18th century. Though many references cite the first British landau as being built in the 1830s, the print shown here is from Ackermann's Repository of Arts, February 1809, and is titled "Patent Landau." The accompanying article says it was built by Messrs. Birch and Son, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, and included "patented improvements in the construction of the roofs and upper quarters."
linen draper: a fabric merchant.
Mayfair: The most desirable residential neighborhood in Regency London. Its unofficial boundaries are Picadilly on the south, Oxford on the north, Park Lane on the west, and Regent Street on the east. It includes Berkeley Square, Grosvenor Square, and Hanover Square.
phaeton: A fashionable owner-driven open-air four-wheeled sporting vehicle with seating for two. A popular version was the high-perch phaeton (see example at right) with its exaggerated elevation. Phaetons could accommodate two or four horses.
pianoforte: An early incarnation of the piano, developed in about 1730. Keyboard instruments prior to that time could be played with precision but without variation of volume. The pianoforte allowed more versatility by producing notes at different volumes depending on the amount of force used to press the keys. It could be played softly (piano) or loudly (forte) -- the full Italian term for the original instrument was gravicèmbalo col piano e forte (literally harpsicord with soft and loud).
post chaise: The post chaise or traveling chariot was a small carriage pulled by two or four horses, and was owned or hired by those wishing to travel privately, that is not on a large public conveyance like a stage coach or mail coach. Hired post chaises were most often traveling chariots that had been discarded by gentlemen -- sort of like a fleet of used rental cars. The hired chaises were generally painted yellow, hence the nickname Yellow Bounder. They were quite small, usually with only one forward seat facing a large glass window. There was often an outside bench seat in the back, over the rear wheel, where servants rode. Luggage was carried on a little forward platform between the front springs, and could also be strapped on the roof. The post chaise was "steered" by postillions, or post boys, seated upon the horses. There was no seat for a driver, and none was needed. One post boy was engaged to drive each pair of horses, ie a team of four horses was driven by two post boys, a lead-boy and a wheel-boy. Each rode on the left side of a pair, and wore iron guards on his right leg and foot to protect against injury from the center pole. The wheel-boy was generally the more experienced of the two. New post boys were trained by riding the lead team with the wheel-boy calling out instructions from behind. When the horses were changed along the route, new post boys were hired with them. Boys in name only, these riders were generally small, hardy little men, like jockeys, and were often colorful characters nattily dressed in "uniforms" associated with specific posting inns. They almost always wore white leather breeches and short jackets with large brass buttons, and tall beaver hats in which they kept their possessions. Private postillions were kept by those who traveled frequently and used their own traveling chariots. But these drivers often posted only to the first stop on a long journey, driving the owner's team back home after new horses and post boys were hired.
rake: This is a somewhat subjective term often used in historical romances to describe the hero. Webster defines a rake as "a dissolute person; a libertine" -- in other words, not a very nice character. In romance novels, however, a rake seldom exhibits behavior that puts him beyond the pale. The term "rake" is most often used in the same way as "playboy" or "womanizer" but without the other implications of drinking, debauchery, and general lechery which inform the literal definition. A typical rakish hero will often have a number of women in his past, but the love of one special woman will cause him to give up the field forever, eg Jack in A Change of Heart or Tony in Once a Scoundrel.
rout: A crowded party, akin to a modern cocktail party. An American visitor to London in 1810 described it like this: "Great assemblies are called routs or parties ... The house in which this takes place is frequently stripped from top to bottom; beds, drawers, and all but ornamental furniture is carried out of sight to make room for a crowd of well-dressed people, received at the door of the principal apartment by the mistress of the house, who smiles at every new comer with a look of acquaintance. Nobody sits; there is no conversation, no cards, no music; only elbowing, turning, and winding from room to room; then, at the end of a quarter of an hour, escaping to the hall door to wait for the carriage, spending more time upon the threshold among footmen than you had done above stairs with their masters. From this rout you drive to another where, after waiting your turn to arrive at the door, perhaps half an hour, the street being full of carriages, you alight, begin the same round, and end it in the same manner."
Season: The social "Season" is generally described as beginning in early spring and lasting until the end of June. The season had some relation to the sitting of Parliament. It convened each January, so those involved in the goverment would head back to town at that time. No doubt their ladies spent the next couple of months updating their wardrobes and planning their social calendars for the spring. As for the term "Little Season", supposedly in the fall -- I have never seen any mention of a Little Season anywhere in a primary source. Only in books by Georgette Heyer and other writers of fiction. It makes sense that there might have been such a thing, as the upper classes who had left London for the seaside or the country might have returned to town in the fall, especially those involved in Parliament, which was still in sesssion until November. But I have never come across the term Little Season anywhere outside of novels.
special license: A license obtained from the Archbishop of Canterbury or his office in Doctor's Commons in London, that granted the right to marry at any convenient time or place. They were valid for 3 months. Without a special license, marriages could only take place between 8:00am and noon in a parish in which one of the parties has resided for a minimum of 4 weeks. [see definition of banns, above]
tiger: A liveried groom, generally small, generally young. An owner-driven curricle or phaeton typically had a groom's seat between the springs on which the tiger sat. (See the illustration at right.) The single-horse cabriolet had a platform at the rear on which the tiger stood. He also managed the horses when his master ascended to or descended from the seat, and sometimes took the reins to exercise the horses while his master temporarily left the vehicle. A small, lightweight tiger was preferred in order to maintain the proper balance. In fact, it was something of a status symbol to have the smallest possible tiger.
ton: Fashionable Society, or the fashion. From the French bon ton, meaning good form, ie good manners, good breeding, etc. A person could be a member of the ton, attend ton events, or be said to have good ton (or bad ton).
ape-leader: An old maid or spinster. Their punishment after death for failing to procreate, it was said, would be to lead apes in hell.
at sixes and sevens: A state of confusion.
Banbury tale: a nonsensical story.
barking irons: Pistols.
barque of frailty: A prostitute.
bear leader: A travelling tutor.
blue ruin: gin.
blunt: Money; ready cash.
caper merchant: Dancing instructor.
cent-per-center: A usurer or loan shark.
chit: A young girl.
cicisbeo: A married woman's gallant, usually a platonic admirer.
cit: A contemptuous term for a member of the merchant class, one who works in or lives in the City of London, ie the central business area and financial center of London.
cock up one's toes: To die.
come up to scratch: Make an offer of marriage. Diligent mamas are often hoping their daughters can bring a certain gentleman up to scratch.
corinthian: Fashionable man about town, generally a sportsman.
cyprian: A high-class prostitute.
dandy: A gentleman who is fastidious about his appearance, especially his clothing. He is not, as is often believed, a flashy or even flamboyant dresser, as was his 18th century predecessor, the Macaroni. George "Beau" Brummell eptomized the Dandy. He was concerned with perfect tailoring and fabrics, cleanliness, and simplicity of dress. He believed that good fashion should be understated and elegant, not eye-catching.
darken one's daylights: To give a black eye.
diamond of the first water: A very beautiful young woman. The phrase comes from a technical term used to describe diamonds. The degree of brilliance in a diamond is called its "water", so a "diamond of the first water" is an exceptionally fine diamond.
dished up: Financially ruined.
dun territory: Lacking funds; in debt.
follow the drum: Follow the military, eg a wife who accompanies her husband in the army.
foxed: Drunk; inebriated.
gull: (v.) to trick someone, generally to trick them out of money; or (n.) a simpleton, easily cheated.
handle the ribbons: To drive a coach or carriage.
high in the instep: Arrogant; snobbish; overly proud; and very much aware of social rank .
hoyden: A girl who is boisterous, carefree, or tomboyish in her behavior.
in one's black books: Out of favor (eg in Once a Scoundrel, Tony was in his father's black books).
ladybird: a lover or kept mistress.
light skirt: Prostitute.
mill: A boxing match. The term can also be used to refer to a less formal bout, ie a barroom brawl or fist-fight. --
missish: Squeamish, prim, prudish, ie behavior befitting a young miss.
mushroom: A person suddenly come into wealth; an upstart; an allusion to the fungus that starts up in the night.
nabob: An Englishmen who made his fortune in India.
on dit: French phrase meaning, "It is said" or "One says". In Regency slang, it meant gossip, eg "the latest on dit."
on the shelf: Beyond marriageable age; no longer wanted. Used in reference to a spinster, never a man who, one assumes was always wanted, regardless of age.
parson's mousetrap: Marriage.
Pink of the Ton: Also Pink of Fashion. The term is generally applied only to males and refers to a man at the height of fashion. A dandy. Per the 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue: "the top of the mode."
plant a facer: To hit someone in the face.
spanish coin: False flattery.
toad eater: Flatterer; toady.
under the hatches: Without funds; in debt.
vowels: An IOU.
yard of tin: The horn, generally a yard or so long, used by the guard of a mail coach or stage coach to warn of approach and departure.
Women's Fashion, Accessories, and Textiles
bombazine: A fabric with a warp of silk and weft of worsted, having a twilled appearance with a very dull finish. It was commonly dyed black, making it an ideal fabric for mourning garments.
busk: A flat length of wood, bone, whalebone, or steel used to stiffen the front of a bodice. Generally the busk was inserted into a busk sheath down the front of a corset. Sometimes a busk was carved with emblems or romantic symbols and presented as a love token. Sailors, for example, often carved whale bone busks to give their sweethearts back home.
cambric: A very fine, delicate linen.
capote: A transitional form between a cap (soft, unstructured) and a bonnet (rigid, shaped). The brim is made of stiffened fabric, but the crown is of soft fabric shaped into a sort of pouch. The capote first made an appearance in the 1790s and continued throughout the 19th century, with the brim or poke becoming larger over time. It was meant for outdoor wear, though in the early years of the 19th century evening capotes were occasionally worn, though the brims would have been abbreviated.
capuchin: A cape with a hood.
chatelaine: A set of decorative and useful items hung at the waist, recreating the concept ofthe medieval chatelaine or lady of the castle wearing her keys at her waist. Keys were still a part of a housekeeper's utilitarian chatelaine, but they were also worn for strictly decorative purposes by fashionable ladies, and might include a watch and watch key, various etuis holding sewing or writing implements, vinaigrettes, pens, ivory leaves for notes, seals, and tiny coin purses. They were usually held at the waist with a chain, like a watch chain. Also referred to as waist-hung equipages. (Despite the Oxford English Dictionary implying that use of the term chatelaine for a fashion accessory is first recorded in 1851, there are several examples of the term in ladies' magazine and trade cards of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.)
chemise: A loose-fitting, long, straight shirt with short sleeves worn under the corset as anundergarment. The term shift is also used for this garment, though it was considered a somewhat vulgar term.
chemisette: A short, sleeveless shirt, much like a dickey, used to fill in the neckline of a gown.
dimity: A stout cotton fabric, plain or twilled, with a raised pattern on one side. Sometimes printed.
domino: A short hooded cloak with an attached mask, worn at masquerades. It was worn over evening attire by both men and women.
drawers: For women, drawers appeared c1800 in response to the sheer dress materials and closer-fitting narrow skirts. Lady Glenbevie's journal records that the "modern and sporty" Princess Charlotte was wearing drawers in 1811. However, they were not generally adopted as a standard undergarment for another decade or more. Made of cotton or linen, early female drawers were made of two tubular pieces of fabric for the legs, attached to a deep waistband. They were laced at the back and tied with tapes, sometimes brought round to fasten with a button at the front. In later decades, they became long enough to been seen and were therefore more decorated.
fichu: A length of fabric, usually triangular, worn around the neck and shoulders. Sometimes tucked inside the neckline of the bodice, sometimes crossed over the bodice. See the image at right in which all three women are wearing fichus of the late 18th century type. This "pouter pigeon" style of fichu fell out of fashion during the Regency years, though the term was resurrected c.1816 to refer to various sorts of bodice tuckers.
fillet: a wire-stiffened string or braid of fabrics and/or pearls, twisted into an evening hairstyle.
flounce: An ornamental row of decorative trim at the edge of a skirt.
fustian: A coarsely textured cotton fabric imitating the more expensive silk velvet.
gypsy hat: A wide-brimmed straw hat with ribbons passing from the crown over the brim and tied in a bow under the chin or at the back of the neck.
habit shirt: A short linen or muslin shirt, originally part of a riding costume, it was also worn to fill in a wide-necked bodice for day wear. Sometimes with a stand-up collar or ruff. Also called a chemisette.
half-boots: Ankle high boots for women, typically for outdoor wear, often made of kid, but sometimes of less sturdy cloth, even velvet.
half-dress: Something worn at informal evenings. Dressy, but not as formal as full-dress.
India muslin: A soft, opaque, silkier blend of cotton muslin.
jaconet: A thin cotton fabric, with a texture between muslin and cambric.
lappets: Two long strips of material, most often lace, that hang down from the top of the head. They can be extensions of a cap band. Lappets were a required element of female court dress. (See the Court Dress collections article.)
lutestring: A very fine, corded glossy silk.
mantle: A short cloak.
mitts: Also mittens. Gloves with open fingers and thumbs. Though gloves were removed during meals, mitts could be worn for informal meals like tea.
modiste: A dress-maker or fashion designer. Always female.
muslin: A fine, semi-transparent cotton fabric.
pelisse: An outdoor coat-like garment worn over a dress. Ankle-length or ¾-length.
pattens: Ladies footwear for inclement weather, worn over a normal shoe, to elevate her a couple of inches above the mud or slush or rain puddles.
pocket: A flat, slitted pouch or bag worn beneath the dress, tied sround the waist with tapes. Generally about 12" or more long. They were accessed via a pocket slit in the side seam of a skirt. Common during the 18th century before reticules (purses) came into popularity, pockets fell out of use when the skirts narrowed during the Regency. However, muslin gowns c1805 in the collection of the Museum of Costume in Bath include pocket slits, so they did continue in use for the early years of the new century, but must have been reduced in size to avoid a bulky look.
quizzing glass: A monocle or small magnifying glass dangling from a neck chain or ribbon, worn as a fashionable accessory by both men and women. See the Collections article on quizzing glasses for examples.
reticule: A lady's purse. More properly called a ridicule, probably because it seemed a ridiculous notion in the late 18th/early 19th century to carry outside the dress those personal belongings formerly kept in large pockets beneath the dress. When waists rose and skirts narrowed, bulky pockets could no longer be accommodated without spoiling the line of the the dress, and so the ridicule became an essential accessory. The term "reticule" seems to have come into use around the mid-19th century. It is used often in Candice's books as the more familiar, if less accurate, term.
round gown: A dress with the bodice and skirt joined in a single garment (during the Regency and earlier, these pieces were generally separate), with the skirt closed all around, ie not opened to expose an underskirt.
sarsnet: A thin twilled fabric which uses different colors in the warp and weft, thus allowing the fabric to subtly change colors as it moves. Though it is sometimes spelled sarsenet or sarcenet, the fashion magazines of the Regecny period almost always use the spelling sarsnet.
spencer: A short, waist-length jacket, with or without sleeves. Generally an outdoor garment worn in the morning or afternoon, but could also be part of an evening ensemble. See example in adjacent print.
stays: A corset.
tippet: An abbreviated cape. Similar to what might today be called a stole or a boa.
tucker: A white edging of lace or muslin, usually frilled, on a low neckline.
undress: A term used for simple, casual gowns for wear at home.
vandyke: Named after the painter Anthony Van Dyke (1599-1641), a style of collar or trimming with a dentate (ie sawtooth) border in lace or fabric.
Men's Fashion and Accessories
banyan: A loose-skirted coat worn by men as a dressing gown.
beaver: Man's black top hat made of felted beaver wool.
breeches: Worn for both evening wear and day wear, usually in a lighter color than the jacket or coat. For riding, sport or country attire, they might be made of leather or buckskin, and were more or less the equivalent of a pair of jeans. For evening, or for formal servants' livery, they might be made of satin. The front of the breeches opened with a flap called a "fall" that buttoned at the hips. Breeches fastened at the knee, or just below the knee, with either buttons, ties, or buckles. (See examples of breeches buckles in the Collections article on paste buckles.) During the Regency, breeches were generally high-waisted and full at the hips. (Ladies would be unlikely to ogle a gentleman's bottom while he wore breeches. They were not tight-fitting enough to be interesting.)
cravat: A large square of lawn, muslin, or silk -- often starched -- folded into a long, narrow tie, worn around the neck with the ends tied in a bow or knot in the front.
facings: Material of a different color that shows when the cuffs and collar are folded over. In the military, different colored facings implied different regiments.
frock coat: A single-breasted tail-coat with full shoulders, tight sleeves, and fitted body. Gained popularity during the late Regency.
greatcoat: A man's overcoat, typically with mutliple capes at the shoulder, reaching at least the knees and more often the ankles.
Hessians: A style of man's riding boot that is calf-length in the back and curves up in front to a point just below the knee, from which point hangs a tassel. Generally made of black leather, they sometimes had a narrow border at the top in a different color, eg white-topped Hessians.
inexpressibles: A man's very tight (and very revealing) trousers or pantaloons. See the Hessian-wearing gent in the adjacent print, whose inexpressibles leave little to the imagination. (Much more interesting than baggy breeches.)
nankeen: A corruption of "Nanking." A yellowish brown sturdy cotton fabric used for men's work breeches or children's play clothes.
pantaloons: In reference to male fashion, pantaloons are close-fitting tights or leggings that end just below the calf. In the latter years of the Regency, they reached the ankles. Pantaloons had a waist band, with a back vent and a front "fall". They were typically worn with boots, as in the picture above showing Hessians.
quizzing glass: A monocle or small magnifying glass dangling from a neck chain or ribbon, worn as a fashionable accessory by both men and women. See the Collections article on quizzing glasses for examples.
spurs: Worn with boots by men of fashion for all occasions, even when not riding.
stock: A shaped neckband of stiffened material or horsehair, covered with fabric, worn high at the throat, and fastened at the back with ties or buckles. (See examples of stock buckles in the Collections article on paste buckles.) A neckcloth or cravat was typically worn over the stock. A stock, often in black, was a part of most military officers' uniforms.
tail coat: A double-breasted coat, cut to form tails at the back while the front was cutaway at the waist. The collar was generally stiff and high-standing with notched lapels. This was standard men's wear during the Regency, with changes over time in the cut of the waist (straight or curved), the width and notching of the lapels, the fullness of the sleeve, etc.
top boots: Sometimes called tall boots, as they road higher on the calf, top boots had turned-down tops, often in a lighter color than the boot, and low square heels. Loops on each side of the boot facilitated pulling them on. Boot garters were sometimes attached to the back of the boot and fastened in front, above the boot, as seen in the adjacent image. Top boots were usually worn with pantaloons or breeches.
trousers: During the Regency period, trousers were basically a type of pantaloon that reached the ankle. They were not as tight-fitting, but instead fell almost straight from hip to ankle. Beau Brummell is said to have invented the fashion for wearing black trousers for evening wear, with straps under the foot to keep the trouser line straight. Trousers were worn with simple shoes or pumps, never with boots.
unmentionables: A euphemism for men's breeches or trousers.
waistcoat: A sleeveless under-coat (what we would call a vest), either single or double breatsed. During the Regency, they were short, and cut square across the waist, as seen in the adjacent image of the gentleman in trousers.
watch fob: A short chain or ribbon with an attached medallion or ornament that connected to a man’s pocketwatch and hung from a small pocket in his waistcoat.
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